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Course 1 - Payments Fundamentals

The purpose of payments fundamentals course is to provide you with the principles and keys to understand and study any payment system.

  • What is a payment?
  • Payment instrument definition and classification
    • Cash and non-Cash usages
  • Payment systems definition
  • Payment systems volumes
  • End parties and their needs
  • End parties quadrants in payments
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction to payments systems models
    • System modeling
    • Types of payments systems models
  • Open loop models
    • Payments system(s) anatomy at country level
    • Example Payments systems in France
  • Closed loop models
    • Example American Express
  • Models for cryptocurrencies
    • Example the Bitcoin
  • Assessment Quiz
  • From Open Loop Models to the Four corner Model
  • The Four Corner Model
  • Few examples of Four Corner Models
  • Direct and Indirect participants to CSMs
    • Direct participants
    • Indirect participants with no direct access to clearing system
    • Indirect participants with direct access to clearing system
  • Participation directories
  • What is Clearing?
  • Bilateral clearing
  • Multilateral clearing
  • (Gross and Net) Settlement
  • The two types of Net Settlements
  • Main types of clearing and settlement systems
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction and definitions
  • Push payments and few examples
  • Pull payments and few examples
  • Summary – Push and Pull payments
  • Assessment Quiz
  • The Four Corner Model
  • Customer-to-bank space and interbank space
  • Why standards are needed for payment messages
  • Payments Messages Standards (ISO 20022, SWIFT MT/MX, Local standards)
  • Original transactions and Related-transactions
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Domestic payments
    • Definition
    • Intrabank payment
    • intra bankgroup payments
    • Interbank payments
  • International payments
    • Domestic vs. Cross-border payments
    • The six party model for cross border payments
    • Correspondent banking – Nostro, Vostro and Loro accounts
    • SWIFT – The gobal secure messaging platform
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Value chain and Payment processing value chain
  • Payment processing value chain (From a bank’s perspective)
  • The Straight Through Processing (STP)
  • Payment processing value chain analysis
    • Payment acquisition and reporting
    • Payment Order Management
    • Payment Exchange
  • Payment status reports
  •  
  • Payments regulations
    • Introduction
    • Key regulatory goals
    • Few examples of payment regulations and initiatives
    • Subjects covered by private rules
  • Risk and risk management in payments
    • Definitions
    • The main types of risks in payments
    • Operational risks (Errors and Failures, Fraud risk, Data security risk, Business disruption risk)
    • Legal risks (Compliance risk, Regulatory risk, Contractual risk)
    • Financial risks (Credit risk, Liquidity / Settlement risk, Systemic risk)
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Economic models of Payments Systems and Payment Service Providers
  • Economic models of Payments Systems
    • Example of CSMs
    • Example of Card schemes
    • Example of cryptocurrency
  • Economic models of Payment Service Providers
  • PSPs Direct revenues
    • Transactions fees
    • Interest on associated loans
    • Monthly maintenance fees
    • Subscription fees
    • Commission on turnover (CoT)
    • Exception fees
  • PSPs Indirect revenues
    • Float
    • Interchange
    • Net interest income on deposit balances
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payments is a dynamic industry with a bright future
  • Overview of few main players in the payments industry
    • Players that are part of the value chain
      • Consumers and merchants
      • Bank payment service providers
      • Non-bank payment service providers
      • Card schemes
      • ACH schemes
      • RTP schemes
      • RTGS schemes
    • Other players
      • Technology vendors
      • Business and IT Consulting companies
      • Strategy and Advisory Consulting companies
  • Assessment Quiz

Course 2 - Understand and Master the SEPA Credit Transfer

The Understand and Master the SEPA Credit Transfer Course was designed for people who work in the payment industry or who want to understand how the SEPA Credit Transfer really works.

  • Definition of SEPA
  • The SEPA Geographical Area
  • What is a SEPA Payment Scheme?
  • The Four SEPA Payments Schemes
  • The main SEPA Payments Initiatives
  • The Payment Services Directive
  • The Payment Services Directive 1 and 2
  • The European Payments Council
  • The EPC scheme documents
  • SEPA Payments Schemes publications – The calendar and main miletones
  • The Payment Service Providers in SEPA
  • The generic Four Corner Model for all SEPA Payments
  • SCT and SCT Inst are push payments
  • SDD Core and SDD B2B are pull payments
  • SEPA payments rely on open international standards
  • Few statistics in different European countries
  • Assessment Quiz
  • The Four Corner Model is at the basis of the SCT 
  • The SCT scheme and the Four Corner Model
  • The SCT scheme rules are described in the EPC Rulebooks
  • The EPC documents for the SEPA Credit Transfer
    • The Main documents
    • Other interesting EPC documents for SCT implementation projects
    • Other useful resources for the SCT Implementation projects
    • An important tip for reading new versions of the main EPC documents
  • The Four Corners: What are they ?
  • End parties in the SCT Four Corner Model
  • The Payment Service Providers in SEPA
  • The PISP and the Four Corner Model
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Clearing and settlement systems in the Four Corner Model
  • Clearing and Settlement – Definitions
  • Market infrastructures of the SEPA Credit Transfer
  • Separation of the scheme and the infrastructures – What does it mean?
  • SCT Scheme compliant clearing systems and their categories
  • Common characteristics of CSM
  • Interoperability of clearing systems
  • Interoperability at CSM level – What it implies
  • The two models of connections to CSM in the SEPA Area
  • Prioritization of clearing systems during the payment processing
  • Types of processing cycles in clearing systems
  • Participation Directory of a Clearing system
  • Interconnections of CSM
  • Assessment Quiz
  • The LIMF Method applied to payment schemes
  • The messages exchanged in the SCT Scheme are found in the Implementation guidelines
  • Overview of all messages listed in the SCT Implementations Guidelines
  • Overview of all messages listed in the SCT IG and Customer Reporting messages
  • SEPA Message names are inherited from the ISO 20022 standard
  • Structure and meaning of SEPA message names
  • Overview of all messages listed in the SCT IG and Customer Reporting messages
  • Messages in the Customer-to-bank space
    • Customer to Bank Instruction and PSR messages (Pain.001 and Pain.002)
    • Bank to Customer Reporting messages (Camt.052, Camt.053, Camt.054)
  • Messages in the Interbank space
    • Pacs.008.001.02 (SCT), Pacs.002.001.03 (Rejet SCT), Pacs.004.001.02 (Return SCT), Camt.056.001.01 (Recall), Pacs.028.001.01 (Request for Status update), Camt.029.001.03 (Negative  Response to Recall)
    • Camt.027.001.06 (SCT Inquiry – Claim non-receipt), Camt.029.001.08 (Response to claim non-receipt), Camt.087.001.05 (SCT Inquiry – Claim for Value Date correction), Camt.029.001.08 (Response to Claim for Value Date correction)
  • Introduction to the standard ISO 20022
  • Standard ISO 20022 and Payments
  • Syntax and semantics in the standard ISO 20022
  • ISO 20022 specifications and the SEPA Implementation Guidelines (IG)
  • Message elements available in the Standard ISO 20022 and their usage in SEPA
  • Comparison of SEPA IG and ISO 20022 specifications
  • Summary of differences between SEPA IG and ISO 20022 specifications
  • SEPA CORE Payments and Additional Optional Services (AOS)
  • Different types of Additional Optional Services (AOS)
  • Overview of all messages listed in the SCT IG and Customer Reporting messages
  • Deep dive into customer-to-bank messages used in the SCT Scheme
    • Pain.001.001.03 and Pain.002.001.03
    • Camt.052.001.02, Camt.053.001.02 and Camt.054.001.02
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Reminder : the GAIM method to apprehend SEPA messages is very powerful
  • Summary of differences between SEPA IG and ISO 20022 specifications 
  • Deep dive into messages used in the Interbank Space of the SCT Scheme
    • Pacs.008 message structure
    • Pacs.004 message structure and reason codes
    • Camt.056 message structure
    • Pacs.028 message structure
    • Camt.029.001.03 message structure and reason codes in SEPA
    • Camt.027 message structure
    • Camt.087 message structure
    • Camt.029.001.08 message structure 
    • Camt.029.001.08 response codes in SEPA
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Main features of the SEPA Credit Transfer
  • The SCT uses the IBAN as account identifier
  • The SCT uses the BIC as Bank identifier
  • The SCT allows only shared fees
  • The SCT is a non-urgent transfer
  • The SCT execution time is maximum one business day
  • The SCT allows amounts exclusively in EUR
  • The SCT can carry up to 140 characters unstructured or structured Remittance Information
  • The SCT can transport ultimate debtor and ultimate creditor Information
  • The SCT is independent of acquisition and clearing channels
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment processing value chain (from bank’s perspective)
  • Payment processing value chain – Inside the bank
  • Payment channels
    • Third Party Providers channels
    • File Transfer channels
    • File Transfer channels and the communication protocols
  • Security in file transfer channels – the main challenges
  • Security is achieved through the use of cryptography techniques
  • Asymmetric encryption mechanisms use pairs of keys
  • Asymmetric encryption mechanisms – how it works
  • Asymmetric mechanisms – combination of hash functions and keys
  • Asymmetric mechanisms – the reality (is a bit more complex)
  • Digital Certificate or public key certificate
  • Summary of encryption mechanisms
  • The EBICS Protocol
  • Encryption in the EBICS Protocol
  • EBICS Protocol – The summary
  • SWIFTNet and the SWIFTNet Protocols
  • Acquisition and Reporting agreements
    • Practical example to illustrate how it works
    • Typical requirements
    • Users and College of Signatories
    • Typical checks and outcomes
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment processing value chain (from bank’s perspective)
  • Payment processing value chain – Inside the bank
  • Payment order management – Introduction and generality
  • Payment order management for the SEPA Credit Transfer
  • Single-beneficiary and Multi-beneficiary payment orders
  • POM Payment processing steps
  • POM functions and services
    • Payment parsing and validation
    • IBAN validation and verification
    • BIC / IBAN coherence check
    • NAR validation and enrichment
    • Dates and the related controls
    • Dates – Processing time, Calendar and Business days
    • Dates – Open Business days
    • Duplicate checks
  • POM functions and services
    • Processing agreements
      • Service Execution speed
      • Service Requested execution date as Settlement date
      • Service Duplicate checks
      • Service Late modification
      • Service percentage of erroneous transactions
      • Service management of erroneous orders / operations
      • Service deferred cut-off
      • Service accounting methods for booking entries
    • Pending order management
    • Balance check
    • Routing and issuing
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment processing value chain (from bank’s perspective)
  • Payment processing value chain – Inside the bank
  • Payment Exchange Platform (PEP)
  • Payment exchange platform – A focal point
  • PEP functions and services
  • Sanctions screening
  • PEP and Routing directories
  • SEPA Routing Directory and other CSM directory
  • Participation directories versions
  • Payment Exchange Platform – Bulking and Debulking 
  • Assessment Quiz

Course 3 - Secrets for your SEPA Credit Transfer Projects

The Secrets for your SEPA Credit Transfer projects Course was designed for people who deliver payment projects and want to become highly skilled payment professionals.

  • Introduction to Booking
  • The double entry bookkeeping principle 
    and accounting events
  • Examples of accounting events to illustrate the double entry principle
  • Different types of bank accounts
  • Booking and non-booking transactions
  • Creditor bank pacs.008 (SCT) booking
  • Creditor bank pacs.004 (Return) booking
  • Creditor bank pacs.004 (Pos. response) booking – the amounts
  • Creditor bank pacs.004 (Positive response) booking
  • Debtor bank credit transfer pain.001 and pacs.008 booking – Order with one transaction
  • Debtor bank credit transfer pain.001 and pacs.008 booking – Order with ten transactions
  • Debtor bank pacs.004 (normal return) booking
  • Debtor bank pacs.004 (positive response) booking
  • Correspondent banking in domestic payments – Nostro, Vostro and Loro accounts
  • Correspondent banking in domestic payments – Nostro and Vostro accounts
  • Shadow and mirror accounts
  • Shadow and mirror accounts – Illustration with an account relationship between DP and IP
  • Real and Mirror accounts in end-to-end the processing of a SCT
  • Real and Mirror accounts in settlement between IP and DP
  • Reconciliation of real and mirror accounts
  • Example of reconciliation with single booking between IP and DP
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Challenges of Account balance management
    • Challenge 1 of account balance management
    • Challenge 2 of account balance management
  • Customer account balance management : the ideal and the reality for banks
  • Balance Management System (BMS)
  • Intraday balance and account balance
    • Challenge 1 with a BMS system
    • Challenge 2 with a BMS system
  • Introduction to merge accounts
    • Balance Management for merge accounts – Payment initiation
    • Balance Management for merge accounts – Payment reception
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction to payment engines
  • Payment engines interact with many systems in the bank
  • Payment engines and Payment Services Hubs
  • Payment engines and the payment processing value chain
  • Finding the Payment engines in your projects
    • Example 1 of payment engines application architecture 
    • Example 2 of payment engines application architecture
    • Example 3 of payment engines application architecture 
    • Example 4 of payment engines application architecture 
  • Options for Payment engines Implementation
  • Main actors of PE implementation projects
  • Few payment engines for SEPA Payment Processing
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment engines interact with many systems in the bank
  • Interfaces
    • Interfaces play a crucial role in payment processing 
    • Synchronous messaging (or communication)
    • Asynchronous messaging (or communication)
    • 2-way asynchronous communication
    • Challenges of asynchronous communication
    • Batch Mode
    • Transactional Mode
  • Surrounding systems of a payment engine (POM)
  • Authentication & rights
  • Channels
  • CSM and SWIFT Directories
  • Customer Referentials
  • Fraud detection
  • Surrounding systems of a payment engine (POM)
    • Accounting systems
    • Audit log or Audit Trail
    • Pricing & Billing
    • Archiving
    • Reporting
    • Data warehouse & Statistics
    • Monitoring
    • The Scheduler
    • Investigations
  • Surrounding systems of a payment engine (PEP)
    • Screening
    • Intrabank and Interbank Networks
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction to Graphical User Interfaces
  • Navigation menu on the left of the page
  • Navigation menu on top of the page
  • Payment instruments and the GUI
  • Payment engines GUI – Naming and organizing the menu items 
  • Payment capture – Key principles
  • SEPA Payment capture – Best practices
  • Payment information displayed on the GUI
    • Examples of pain.001 and  pacs.008
  • Original transactions and related transactions (R-transactions)
  • Original transactions and R-transactions on the GUI
  • Reconciliation of R-transactions
  • Linking original and r-transactions on the GUI
  • The 3270 screens
  • Assessment Quiz
  •  
  • User actions – introduction
  • User rights, user roles and users – the overview
  • User rights and user roles
  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) and User roles
  • Illustration of user role and RBAC on menu items
  • The search and search criteria
  • Generic search steps
  • Tips and suggestions about search screens
  • The worklist items (WLI)
  • The worklist items should be pushed
  • The worklist items (WLI) should be exhaustive
  • Prioritization of worklist items
  • Messages on the worklist items
  • Messages on the worklist items – Clarity, training and documentation
  • Audit log or audit trail – Logging of actions
  • Settings and parameters
  • Assessment Quiz
  •  
  • Introduction to State machine diagrams
  • Examples of State machine diagrams
  • The light bulb
  • The door
  • The entities of a payment message
  • Process flows of the payment entities
  • Message – State machine diagram
  • Order – State machine diagram
  • Transaction – State machine diagram
  • State diagrams and booking
  • Assessment Quiz
  • What is your SCT project about ?
  • SCT messages and your project
  • Which messages are in scope of your project?
  • Messages in the customer-to-bank space
  • The Originator bank interbank messages
  • The Beneficiary bank interbank messages
  • Messages exchanged with Clearing systems
  • Messages exchanged with EBA STEP2 (SCT Scheme)
  • The Payment processes – few key concepts
  • The rulebooks contain high-level processes
  • Typical processes in scope of an SCT project
  • The processes in your SCT project
  • The applications in scope of your project
  • The geographical scope
  • Internal and external customers
  • Assessment Quiz​​
  • Why the architectural approach
  • The challenges
  • The objectives
  • The Architectural approach – What is it?
  • How the architectural plans relate to each other
  • The process architecture
  • The functional architecture
  • The functional architecture with sub-functional blocks
  • Functional architecture – a payment exchange platform
  • The Application architecture
  • Application architecture – data flows
  • Application architecture – Integration tools
  • The technical architecture
  • Technical architecture – Load balancing and high availability
  • Assessment Quiz

Course 4 Initiation to Cross-Border Payments

The Initiation to Cross-border payments Course provides a step-by-step explanation of how cross-border payments work.

  • What is a Cross-border payment?
  • The « six party model » for cross border payments
  • The four key strategies to understand how cross-border payments work
  • Strategy #1 – Understand the principles behind the organization of market infrastructures in the different countries of the world
  • Payment systems models – Open loop models
  • Open loop models – Payment systems anatomy
  • Payment market infrastructures in France (EUR)
  • Payment market infrastructures in the USA (USD)
  • Payment market infrastructures in Australia (AUD)
  • Payment market infrastructures in South Africa (ZAR)
  • Payment market infrastructures in UK (GBP and EUR)
  • Payment market infrastructures in Sweden (SEK and EUR)
  • Payment market infrastructures in Norway (NOK and EUR)
  • Payment market infrastructures in China (CNY/RMB)
  • Payment market infrastructures in Japan (JPY)
  • Payment market infrastructures in Canada (CAD)
  • Payment market infrastructures in India (INR)
  • Answers to key questions of Strategy #1
  • Assessment Quiz
  • The Strategy 2 to understand how cross border payments work
  • Banks need to send and receive payments in foreign currency
  • Banks and correspondent accounts
  • Correspondent banking – unilateral account relationship
  • Correspondent banking – Nostro, Vostro, Loro accounts
  • Unilateral account relationship and mirror account
  • Bilateral account relationship
  • How mirror accounts are used 
  • Funds in currency are kept on correspondent accounts
  • Transfers in currency and the correspondent account
  • The correspondent network
  • Different types of currencies
  • Opening of correspondent accounts – direct deposit
  • Answers to key questions of Strategy #2
  • Assessment Quiz
  • The strategy 3 to understand how cross border payments work
  • The situation before the SWIFT Network 
  • SWIFT addresses security and automation
  • SWIFTNet is a highly secure Network
  • SWIFT standards enhance the communication
  • SWIFT standards enable automation
  • SWIFTNet interconnects banks and corporations
  • SWIFTNet is a messaging system
  • SWIFT and the BIC code
  • Assessment Quiz
  • The Strategy 4 to understand how cross border payments work
  • Cross border payments and currency exchanges
  • FX Markets are used by banks and their customers
  • Foreign exchange – Introduction and definition
  • ISO 4217: the Standard for currency codes
  • FX – Fixed Exchange rate and Floating Exchange rate
  • Foreign exchange – Currency pairs
  • BID price and ASK price for banks and customers
  • Foreign exchange – Example of a currency quote
  • Foreign exchange – Direct and Indirect Quotation
  • Foreign exchange – Currency tenor
  • Foreign exchange – The Float
  • Liquidity management (in cross border payment context)
  • When do banks go the FX markets?
  • Adjustments on the FX account(s)
  • Funds in currency are kept on correspondent accounts
  • Assessment Quiz
  • What is a Cross-border payment?
  • The « six party model » for cross border payments
  • Customer Credit Transfer to a customer of the correspondent bank
  • Customer Credit Transfer to a customer of the correspondent 
    bank’s subsidiary
  • FI Transfer to the correspondent bank’s subsidiary
  • Customer Credit Transfer to a customer of another bank in the monetary zone
  • FI Transfer to another bank in the monetary zone
  • Customer Credit Transfer to a customer of a major bank’s subsidiary in the monetary zone
  • FI Transfer to a major bank’s subsidiary in the monetary zone
  • Customer Credit Transfer from a customer of a major bank’s subsidiary to a customer of another major bank’s subsidiary
  • FI Transfer from a major bank’s subsidiary to the subsidiary of another major bank
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have the same correspondent in the country of the currency of transfer
  • FI Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have the same correspondent in the country of the currency of transfer
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have the same correspondent and subsidiaries are involved
  • FI Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have the same correspondent and subsidiaries are involved
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have different correspondents in the country of the currency of transfer
  • FI Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have different correspondents in the country of the currency of transfer
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have different correspondents and their subsidiaries are involved
  • FI Transfer – Bank 1 and Bank 2 have different correspondents and their subsidiaries are involved
  • Assessment Quiz
  • SWIFT Messages standards
  • The main spaces in cross border payments
  • How to get the messages overview?
  • SWIFT MT Messages for Customer transfers
  • SWIFT MT Messages for Financial Institution transfers
  • Bank roles in Cross border payments
  • SWIFT MT Message Identifiers
  • Structure of a SWIFT MT Message
  • SWIFT MT Message structure example
  • MT Message field structure
  • List of SWIFT Messages Types
  • MT Messages in the Customer-to-bank Space
  • SWIFT MT Messages for Customer transfers
  • MT Messages in the Bank-to-correspondent Space
  • SWIFT MT Messages for Financial Institution transfers
  • Assessment Quiz
  • SWIFT Messages standards
  • Advantages of SWIFT MX standards
  • SWIFT migration to MX messages – The calendar
  • The different spaces in cross border payments
  • How to get the messages overview?
  • SWIFT MX Messages for Customer transfers
  • SWIFT MX Messages for Financial Institution transfers
  • MT and MX ISO 20022 have different vocabularies
  • SWIFT MX message names
  • Structure and meaning of SWIFT MX message names
  • SWIFT MX Message Definition Reports and Schemas
  • SWIFT MX Message structure
  • Difference between ISO 20022 and SWIFTNet MX messages
  • MX Messages in the Customer-to-bank space
  • SWIFT MX Messages for Customer transfers
  • MX Messages in the Bank-to-correspondent space
  • SWIFT MX Messages for Financial Institution transfers
  • Assessment Quiz​​
  • Basic MT103 Transfer with Direct Account Relationship
  • MT103 Transfer with optional fields 53B, 70 and 71G // Pacs.008
  • MT103 Transfer with fields 52a, 57a // Pacs.008
    • Message 1 from Bank to correspondent
    • Message 2 from correspondent to Creditor Agent
  • Transfer with Currency conversion
    • MT 103 from bank to correspondent // Pacs.008
    • MT950 from correspondent to Bank // Camt.053
  • MT202 FI Transfer // Pacs.009 
    • Message 1 from FI debtor to correspondent
    • Message 2 from correspondent to Creditor Agent
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Serial and Cover Methods – Introduction
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Cover Method
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Serial Method
  • Cover method analysis (MT and MX messages)
  • Customer instruction: MT101 // Pain.001
  • MT 103 // Pacs.008 Announcement
  • First MT202 COV // MX Pacs.009
  • Second MT202 COV // MX Pacs.009 
  • MT910 // Camt.054 Credit Notification
  • Serial method analysis (MT and MX messages)
  • First MT103 // MX Pacs.008
  • Second MT103 // MX Pacs.008
  • Third MT103 // MX Pacs.008 
  • Assessment Quiz
  • SWIFT MT Messages structure
  • SWIFT MT Message overview
  • Structure of a SWIFT MT Message
  • SWIFT MT Message structure example
  • SWIFT MT 101 Text block structure
  • SWIFT MT 104 Text block structure
  • SWIFT MT 103 Text block structure
  • SWIFT MT 102 Text block structure
  • SWIFT MT 202 Text block structure
  • SWIFT MT 202 COV Text block structure
  • SWIFT MT 204 Text block structure
  • SWIFT MX Messages structure
  • SWIFT MX Messages overview
  • Syntax and semantics in the standard ISO 20022
  • MX pain.001.001.11 message structure
  • MX pain.008.001.09 message structure
  • MX pain.002.001.11 message structure
  • MX pain.007.001.11 message structure
  • MX camt.053.001.02 message structure
  • MX pacs.008.001.10 message structure
  • MX pacs.009.001.10 message structure
  • MX pacs.010.001.05 message structure
  • MX pacs.004.001.11 message structure
  • MX pacs.007.001.11 message structure
  • Assessment Quiz

Course 5 Master Cross-Border Payments

The Mastering Cross-border payments Course provides an advanced step-by-step explanation of how cross-border payments work.

  • Prerequisites for exchanging messages on SWIFTNet
  • SWIFTNet Identifiers
  • Steps to get SWIFT Identifiers and become a SWIFTNet user
  • Connectivity to SWIFTNet
    • Cloud-based solutions
    • Alliance Kits
    • Alliance connect packages
  • SWIFTNet Link: the connectivity software
  • Alliance connect implementation process
  • Security on SWIFTNet
    • SWIFT Public Key Infrastructure
    • Certificates distribution
  • Security on SWIFTNet
    • Certificates and the HSMs
    • Functions performed by the SNL and by the institution
  • Protocols and services on SWIFTNet
  • Subscription and access rights
    • The Closed User Groups (CUG)
    • The Relationship Management Application (RMA)
  • Recap – actions before message exchange
  • SWIFTNet transactional modes
  • Typical architecture for a direct connection to SWIFT
  • Assessment Quiz
  • SWIFT MT 101 Text block structure
  • MX pain.001.001.11 message structure
  • How corporations use the MT101 / MX Pain.001
  • MT101/MX Pain.001 with two domestic transactions
  • MT101/MX Pain.001 usage to pay from multiple debit accounts
  • MT101/MX Pain.001 usage to pay from a subsidiary account
  • MT101/MX Pain.001 usage by parent company to pay on behalf of subsidiaries
  • MT101/MX Pain.001 usage for funds repatriation
  • Assessment Quiz
  •  
  • Model where Bank 1 and Bank 2 have different correspondents and their subsidiaries are involved
  • Customer credit transfer where six banks are involved (Method 1 with a third reimbursement institution)
    • The announcement: MT103/MX Pacs.008
    • The MT202COV / MX Pacs.009 to the sender’s correspondent
    • The MT205COV / MX Pacs.009 in the USD zone
    • The second MT202COV / MX Pacs.009
  • Customer credit transfer where six banks are involved (Method 2 using an Account with Institution)
    • The announcement: MT103/MX Pacs.008
    • The MT202COV / MX Pacs.009 to the sender’s correspondent
    • The MT205COV / MX Pacs.009 in the USD Zone
    • The MT910 / MX Camt.054 to the Receiver’s Main office
  • Customer credit transfer where six banks are involved (Can a MT 103 serial be used ?)
    • First MT103/MX Pacs.008 with the serial method
  • MT103 Core and MT 103 STP
  • MT103 Core and MT 103 REMIT
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Financial Institution Credit Transfer with MT200 / MX Pacs.009
  • Financial Institution Credit Transfer with cover method
    • The MT202 / Pacs.009 announcement
    • The first MT202 COV / Pacs.009
    • The first MT202 COV / Pacs.009
    • The first MT202 COV / Pacs.009
    • The MT910 / MX Camt.054
  • The MT 204 / Pacs.010 Financial Institution Direct Debit
  • Assessment Quiz
  •  
  • Original transactions and related transactions (R-transactions)
  • The main related transactions
  • Example of MT103 Reject
  • Example of MT103 Return
  • Cancellation request  in the Cover method
  • Cancellation request from Customer (MT192 / MX Camt.055)
  • Cancellation request MT192 / MX Camt.056 on announcement
  • Response to Cancellation request MT196 / Camt.029 (Pending)
  • Response to Cancellation request MT196 / Camt.029 (Cancelled)
  • Cancellation request MT292 on MT202COV / MX Camt.056 on MX Pacs.009
  • First MT 202 COV Return / MX Pacs.004 Return after accepting a cancellation request
  • Cancellation Request Process in the MX ISO 20022
  • Payment Reversal
  • Customer Payment Reversal through domestic CSM
  • SWIFT GPI tracker and Universal payment confirmations (MT 199)
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Standing settlement instructions
  • Getting SSI data: the two main options
  • FULL and DELTA versions of SWIFTRef Directories
  • How SSIs are used during payment processing
  • Algorithm to determine the settlement path
  • Many parties can be provided in the SSI
  • How to send currency to a small Creditor Bank?
  • Updated algorithm to determine the settlement path 
  • Assessment Quiz
  • FX Markets are used by banks and their customers
  • BID price and ASK price for banks and customers
  • Foreign eXchange – Example of a currency quote
  • Foreign eXchange – Currency tenor
  • Foreign eXchange – The Float
  • FX main process steps
    • 1. Find out if a FX conversion is required
    • 2. Determine the rate type
    • 3. Determine the rate
    • 4. Apply the rate
  • Assessment Quiz
  •  
  • The charge options
  • MT103 Serial with charge option BEN
  • MT103 Serial with charge option SHA
  • MT103 Transfer with charge option OUR prepaid
  • MT103 Serial with charge option OUR non-prepaid
  • MT202 charge model
  • MT202: collection of charges
  • Usage of MTn90 (Advice of Charges)
  • Usage of MT191 (Request of Charges)
  • Query and Answer related to the MT191
  • Usage of MT191 with Account with Institution 
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment processing value chain (from bank’s perspective)
  • Payment processing value chain – Inside the bank
  • Payment channels
    • Third Party Providers channels
    • File Transfer channels
    • The Worldwide host-to-host channel
    • File Transfer channels and the communication protocols
  • Security in file transfer channels – the main challenges
  • Security is achieved through the use of cryptography techniques
  • Asymmetric encryption mechanisms use pairs of keys
  • Asymmetric encryption mechanisms – how it works
  • Asymmetric mechanisms – combination of hash functions and keys
  • Asymmetric mechanisms – the reality (is a bit more complex)
  • Digital Certificate or public key certificate
  • Summary of encryption mechanisms
  • SWIFT Personal token and End entity certificates
  • SWIFT Secure Signature Key or 3SKey
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment processing value chain (from bank’s perspective)
  • Payment processing value chain – Inside the bank
  • Payment order management – Introduction and generality
  • Payment order management for the SEPA Credit Transfer
  • Single-beneficiary and Multi-beneficiary payment orders
  • POM Payment processing steps
  • POM functions and services
    • Payment parsing and validation
    • IBAN validation and verification
    • BIC / IBAN coherence check
    • NAR validation and enrichment
    • Dates and the related controls
    • Dates – Processing time, Calendar and Business days
    • Dates – Open Business days
    • Duplicate checks
  • POM functions and services
    • Processing agreements
      • Service Debit/Credit Notification
      • Service FX Margin
      • Service Account substitution
      • Service Late modification
      • Service Value date
      • Service Authorization to debit account
      • Service Specific charges Account
    • Charge option validation & application
    • Specific country or regional validations
    • Settlement path determination
    • Pending order management
    • FX conversion
    • Balance check
    • Routing and issuing
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment processing value chain (from bank’s perspective)
  • Payment processing value chain – Inside the bank
  • Payment Exchange Platform (PEP)
  • Payment exchange platform – A focal point
  • PEP functions and services
  • Sanctions screening
  • PEP and Routing directories
  • XCT Validation, Routing and SSI Directories
  • Participation directories versions
  • Payment Exchange Platform – Bulking and Debulking 
  • Assessment Quiz
  •  

Course 6 Secrets for your Cross-Border Payment Projects

In this course, you get all the secrets to quickly understand and successfully deliver your cross-border payment projects.

  • Correspondent banking – unilateral account relationship
  • Correspondent banking – bilateral account relationship
  • Correspondent banking – Loro accounts
  • Recap: Shadow and mirror accounts
  • Illustration with an account relationship between bank and its correspondent
  • Real and Mirror accounts in end-to-end the processing of cross-border transfers
  • Why mirror account are needed
  • Reconciliation of real and mirror accounts
  • Example of reconciliation with single booking between a bank and its correspondent
  • Example of reconciliation with batch booking between between a bank and its correspondent
  • Challenge of Nostro account management
  • Nostro account management: the solutions
  •  
  • Introduction to Booking
  • The double entry bookkeeping principle 
    and accounting events
  • Examples of accounting events to illustrate the double entry principle
  • Different types of bank accounts
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Serial Method
    • When a FX conversion is required: an example
    • Rates and accounting events to debit an account in currency
    • Debtor bank credit transfer pain.001/MT101 and pacs.008/MT103 booking – Order with one transaction
    • Debtor bank pacs.004 (normal return) booking
    • Correspondent of Debtor bank pacs.008 / MT103 booking – Order with one transaction
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Serial Method
    • Correspondent of Creditor bank pacs.008 / MT103 booking – Order with one transaction
    • Case of an incoming transaction in currency
    • Case of an incoming transaction in currency
    • Creditor bank pacs.008 / MT103 (credit transfer) booking
    • Creditor bank pacs.004 / MT103 (Return) booking
    • Creditor bank pacs.004 / MT103 Return from a customer account
  • Customer Credit Transfer – Cover Method
    • Creditor bank pacs.008 / MT103 (announcement) booking
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Purposes of Account balance management
    • Challenge 1 of account balance management
    • Challenge 2 of account balance management
  • Customer account balance management : the ideal and the reality for banks
  • Balance Management System (BMS)
  • Intraday balance and account balance
    • Challenge 1 with a BMS system
    • Challenge 2 with a BMS system
  • Purposes of Nostro account balance management
  • Challenge of Nostro account management
  • Nostro account management: the solutions
  • Results of the Proof of Concept for SWIFT gpi Nostro DLT
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction to payment engines
  • Payment engines interact with many systems in the bank
  • Payment engines and Payment Services Hubs
  • Payment engines and the payment processing value chain
  • Finding the Payment engines in your projects
    • Example 1 of payment engines application architecture 
    • Example 2 of payment engines application architecture
    • Example 3 of payment engines application architecture 
    • Example 4 of payment engines application architecture 
  • Options for Payment engines Implementation
  • Main actors of PE implementation projects
  • Few payment engines for the processing of Cross-Border Payments
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Payment engines interact with many systems in the bank
  • Interfaces
    • Interfaces play a crucial role in payment processing 
    • Synchronous messaging (or communication)
    • Asynchronous messaging (or communication)
    • 2-way asynchronous communication
    • Challenges of asynchronous communication
    • Batch Mode
    • Transactional Mode
  • Surrounding systems of a payment engine (POM)
    • Authentication & rights
    • Channels
    • CSM and SWIFT Directories
    • Customer Referentials
    • Fraud detection
    • Foreign Exchange Systems
  • Surrounding systems of a payment engine (POM)
    • Accounting systems
    • Audit log or Audit Trail
    • Pricing & Billing
    • Archiving
    • Reporting
    • Data warehouse & Statistics
    • Monitoring
    • The Scheduler
    • Investigations
  • Surrounding systems of a payment engine (PEP)
    • Screening
    • Intrabank and Interbank Networks
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction to Graphical User Interfaces
  • Navigation menu on the left of the page
  • Navigation menu on top of the page
  • Payment instruments and the GUI
  • Payment engines GUI – Naming and organizing the menu items 
  • Payment capture – Key principles
  • Cross-border payments capture – Best practices
  • Payment information displayed on the GUI
    • Examples of pain.001 and  pacs.008
  • Original transactions and related transactions (R-transactions)
  • Original transactions and R-transactions on the GUI
  • Reconciliation of R-transactions
  • Linking original and r-transactions on the GUI
  • The 3270 screens
  • Assessment Quiz
  • User actions – introduction
  • User rights, user roles and users – the overview
  • User rights and user roles
  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) and User roles
  • Illustration of user role and RBAC on menu items
  • The search and search criteria
  • Generic search steps
  • Tips and suggestions about search screens
  • The worklist items (WLI)
  • The worklist items should be pushed
  • The worklist items (WLI) should be exhaustive
  • Prioritization of worklist items
  • Messages on the worklist items
  • Messages on the worklist items – Clarity, training and documentation
  • Audit log or audit trail – Logging of actions
  • Settings and parameters
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Introduction to State machine diagrams
  • Examples of State machine diagrams
    • The light bulb
    • The door
  • The entities of a payment message
  • Process flows of the payment entities
  • Message – State machine diagram
  • Order – State machine diagram
  • Transaction – State machine diagram
  • State diagrams and booking
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Debit and credit legs for credit transfers
  • The options for transaction validations
  • Process/functions and exceptions
  • Debit and credit legs for Customer Credit Transfers
  • Debit leg processing – MX Pain.001/MT101 Customer Credit Transfer Instruction flow
  • Credit leg processing – MX Pain.001/MT101 Customer Credit Transfer On-Us Transaction flow
  • Credit leg processing – MX Pain.001/MT101 Customer Credit Transfer Not on-Us Transaction flow
  • Debit and credit legs for FI to FI credit transfers
  • Debit leg processing – MX Pacs.008/MT103 FI to FI Credit Transfer Instruction flow
  • Credit leg processing – MX Pacs.008/MT103 FI to FI Credit Transfer On-Us Transaction flow
  • Credit leg processing – MX Pacs.008/MT103 FI to FI Credit Transfer Not on-Us Transaction flow
  • Debit and credit legs for Customer Direct Debits
  • Credit leg processing – MX Pain.008/MT104 Customer Credit Transfer Instruction flow
  • Debit leg processing – MX Pain.008/MT104 Customer Credit Transfer On-Us Transaction flow
  • Debit leg processing – MX Pain.008/MT104 Customer Credit Transfer Not on-Us Transaction flow
  • Debit and credit legs for FI to FI Direct debits
  • Credit leg processing – MX Pacs.003/MT104 FI to FI Direct Debit Instruction flow
  • Debit leg processing – MX Pacs.003/MT104 FI to FI Direct Debit On-Us Transaction flow
  • Debit leg processing – MX Pacs.003/MT104 FI to FI Direct Debit On-Us Not on-Us Transaction flow
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Understanding what your XCT project is about
  • Cross-border payment messages and your project
  • Message categories in cross border payments
  • The main spaces in cross border payments
  • Bank roles in Cross border payments
  • Bank role-based analysis method
  • SWIFT MT Messages for Customer transfers
  • Messages in the customer-to-bank space
  • The Originator bank interbank messages
  • The originator bank’s correspondent messages
  • The receiving bank’s correspondent messages
  • The receiving bank messages
  • SWIFT MT Messages for Financial Institution transfers
  • The ordering institution messages
  • SWIFT MX Messages for Customer transfers
  • SWIFT MX Messages for Financial Institution transfers
  • Payment processes – few key concepts
  • Typical processes in scope of an XCT project
  • The processes in your XCT project
  • The applications in scope of your project
  • The geographical scope
  • Internal and external customers
  • Assessment Quiz
  • Why the architectural approach
    • The challenges
    • The objectives
  • The Architectural approach – What is it?
  • How the architectural plans relate to each other
  • The process architecture
  • The functional architecture
  • The functional architecture with sub-functional blocks
  • Functional architecture – a payment exchange platform
  • The Application architecture
  • Application architecture – data flows
  • Application architecture – Integration tools
  • The technical architecture
  • Technical architecture – Load balancing and high availability
  • Assessment Quiz